Vinification: The vinification of each plot is done individually to optimize the choice of blends. Moreover, the fermentations are carried out separately and customized to take account of terroir, grape variety, and vintage characteristics. The grapes undergo a gentle extraction and the must is kept at traditional temperatures with moderate lengths and frequencies of pumping-over. The press drains off continuously into barrels to facilitate the selection of the press-wine batches. Malolactic fermentation is managed in vats for optimal control. The wine is barreled in duly identified individual batches immediately after malolactic fermentation. Blending takes place during the first racking operation; for Ducru Beaucaillou, between 50 and 80% of new barrels are used according to the richness of the vintage. The barrels (225L Bordeaux barrels, French oak) are supplied by 5 carefully selected cooperages giving every guarantee.